Cleaner code with functional programming

Cleaner code with functional programming

Functional programming is a style of programming and modern languages support this style to a greater or lesser extent. In this article I want to explain how programming in a functional style provides you with powerful abstractions to make your code cleaner. I will illustrate this with examples in Raku and Python, which as we will see are both excellent languages for functional programming.

Raku: a quick introduction

The code examples in this article are written in Python and Raku. I assume most people are familiar with Python, but Raku is less well known, so I will explain the basics first. The code in this article is not very idiomatic so you should be able to understand it easily if you know another programming language.

Raku is most similar to Perl. Both languages are syntactically similar to C/C++, Java and JavaScript: block-based, with statements separated by semicolons, blocks demarcated by braces, and argument lists in parentheses and separated by commas. The main feature that sets Perl and Raku apart from other languages is the use of sigils (‘funny characters’) which identify the type of a variable: $ for a scalar, @ for an array, % for a hash (map) and & for a subroutine. Variables also have keywords to identify their scope, I will only use my which marks the variable as lexically scoped. A subroutine is declared with the sub keyword, and subroutines can be named or anonymous:

sub square ($x) {
# anonymous subroutine 
my $anon_square = sub ($x) {

In Python this would be:

def square(x):
    return x*x

# anonymous subroutine 
anon_square = lambda x: x*x

Raku supports sigil-less variables, and uses the \ syntax to declare them. For more on the difference between ordinary and sigil-less variables, see the Raku documentation. For example (say prints its argument followed by a newline):

my \x = 42; # sigilless
my $y = 43; 
say x + $y; 

In the code in this article, I will use the sigil-less variables whenever possible.

Raku has several types of sequence data structures. In the code below I will use lists and arrays and ranges. The main difference between a list and an array in Raku is that a list is immutable, which means that once created, it can’t be modified. So it is a read-only data structure. To ‘update’ an immutable data structure, you need to create an updated copy. Arrays on the other hand are mutable, so we can update their elements, extend them, shrink them etc. All updates happen in place on the original.

Raku’s arrays are similar to Python’s lists and Raku’s lists are similar to Python’s tuples, which are also immutable. Apart from the syntax, ranges in Raku are similar to ranges in Python, and both are immutable.

my @array1 = 1,2,3; #=> an array because of the '@' sigil
my \array2 = [1,2,3]; #=> an array, because of the '[...]'

my \range1 = 1 .. 10; #=> a range 1 .. 10
my @array3 = 1 .. 10; #=> an array from a range, because of the '@' sigil

my \list1 = 1,2,3; #=> a list
my $list2 = (1,2,3); #=> also a list
my \list3 = |(1 .. 10);  #=> an array from a range because of the '|' flattening operation

The equivalent Python code would be

list1 = list((1,2,3)) #=> a list from a tuple
list2 = [1,2,3]; #=> a list, because of the '[...]'

range1 = range(1,11) #=> a range 1 .. 10
list3 = list(range(1,11)); #=> a list from a range

tuple1 = 1,2,3; #=> a tuple
tuple2 = tuple([1,2,3]) #=> a tuple from a list
tuple3 = tuple(range(1,11)) #=> creates a tuple from a range

Other specific bits of syntax or functionality will be explained for the particular examples.

A function, by any other name — functions as values

Functions are the essence of functional programming. As I explained in my article “Everything is a function”, in a proper functional language, all constructs are built from functions.

All modern programming languages have a notion of functions, procedures, subroutines or methods. They are an essential mechanism for code reuse. Typically, we think of a function as something that operates on some input values to produce one or more output values. The input values can be globally declared, attributes of a class or passed as arguments to the function. Similarly, the output values can be returned directly, to global variables, as class attributes or by modifying the input values.

To benefit most from functional programming, it is best if functions are pure, which means that a call to the function always produces the same output for the same inputs. In practice, this is easier to achieve if the function only takes inputs as arguments and returns the output directly, but this is not essential.

The crucial feature of functional programming is that the input and output values of a function can themselves be functions. So functions must be values in your language. Sometimes this is called “functions must be first-class”, and a function that takes and/or returns a function is sometimes called a “higher-order function”.

If functions are values, it follows that we can assign them to variables. In particular we will assign them to the arguments of other functions. But we can also assign them to ordinary variables.

Let’s consider the following function, choose, which takes three arguments t, f and c.

# Raku
sub choose (\t, \f, \d) {
	if (d) {t} else {f}
# Python
def choose (t, f, d):
  if d:
    return t 
    return f

First let’s call choose with strings as values for the first two arguments:

# Raku
my \tstr = "True!";
my \fstr = "False!";

my \res_str = choose(tstr, fstr, True);

say res_str; #=> says "True!"
# Python
tstr = "True!"
fstr = "False!"

res_str = choose(tstr,fstr,True)

print(res_str) #=> says "True!"

Now let’s try with functions as arguments:

# Raku
sub tt (\s) { say "True {s}!" }
sub ff (\s) { say "False {s}!" }

my &res_f = choose(&tt, &ff, False);

say &res_f; #=> says &ff
res_f("rumour"); #=> says "False rumour!"
# Python
def tt(s):
  print( "True "+s+"!")
def ff(s):  
  print( "False"+s+"!")

res_f = choose(tt,ff,True)

print(res_f) #=> says <function tt at 0x7f829c3aa310>
res_f("rumour") #=> says "False rumour!"

So our function choose took two functions as its first two arguments, and returned a function. In Raku we need the & sigil on the function names because otherwise they would be evaluated: a bare function name like tt is the same as calling the function without arguments, tt(). By assigning this function to a variable (res_f), we can now call res_f as a function and it will eventually call tt or ff depending of the choice.

Functions don’t need a name

Now, if we can assign functions to variables, they don’t really need a name themselves. So our functions can be anonymous. Most languages support anonymous functions. In functional languages they are usually called “lambda functions”. In Raku, we have two ways to create anonymous functions:

Using the sub (...) syntax:

my \tt = sub (\s) { say "True {s}!" };

Or using the ‘pointy block’ syntax, which is a little bit more compact:

my \ff = -> \s { say "False {s}!" };

Python uses the lambda keyword:

tt = lambda s : print( "True "+s+"!" )
ff = lambda s : print( "False "+s+"!" )

So now we can say

my &res_f = choose(tt, ff, True);

say &res_f; #=> says sub { }
res_f("story"); #=> says "True story!"

When we print out the variable to which the function is bound, Raku returns sub { } to indicate that the variable contains a function.

In Python:

res_f = choose(tt, ff, True);

print( res_f) #=> says <function <lambda> at 0x7f829b298b80>
res_f("story") #=> says "True story!"

Examples: map, grep and reduce

Functions of functions have many uses, and I just want to highlight three examples that are available readily in Raku: map, reduce and grep. Python has map and filter, and provides reduce via the functools module. What these functions have in common is that they offer an alternative to for-loops over lists.

map : applying a function to all elements of a list

map takes two arguments: a function and a list. It applies the function to all values in the list in order and returns the results, for example to square all values in a list:

my \res = map -> \x {x*x} , 1 .. 10;

In Python we need to explicitly create the tuple, but apart from the syntax differences, the structure is quite the same:

res = tuple( map( lambda x : x*x , range(1,11)))

This is the functional alternative to the more conventional for-loop:

# Raku
my \res = [];
for 1 .. 10 -> \x {
# Python
res = []
for x in range(1,11):

Note that in both Raku and Python we need to use a mutable data structure for the for-loop version, whereas the map version uses immutable data structures.

grep : filtering a list

grep (called filter in Python) also takes arguments, a function and a list, but it only returns the values from the list for which the function returns true:

# Raku
my \res = grep -> \x { x % 5 == 0 }, 1 .. 30;
# Python
res = tuple(filter( lambda x : x % 5 == 0 ,range(1,31)))

We can of course write this using a for-loop and an if-statement, but that again requires a mutable data structure:

# Raku
my \res = [];
for 1 .. 30 -> \x {
	if (x % 5 == 0) {
# Python
res = []
for x in range(1,31): 
  if (x % 5 == 0):

What’s nice about map and grep is that you can easily chain them together:

# Raku
grep -> \x { x % 5 == 0 }, map -> \x {x*x}, 1..30
# Python
res = tuple(filter( lambda x : x % 5 == 0 ,map( lambda x : x*x ,range(1,31))))

This is because map and grep take a list and return a list, so as long as you need to operate on a list, you can do this by chaining the calls.

reduce : combining all elements of a list into a single value

reduce also takes a function and a list, but it uses the function to combine all elements of the list into a single result. So the function must take two arguments. The second argument is the element taken from the list, and the first argument is used as a state variable to combine all elements. For example, calculating the sum of a list of numbers:

# Raku
my \sum = reduce sub (\acc,\elt) {acc+elt}, 1 .. 10;

say sum; #=> says 55
# Python
from functools import reduce

sum = reduce(lambda acc,elt: acc+elt, range(1,11))

print( sum); #=> says 55

What happens here is that acc is first set to the first element of the list (1), and then the second element is added to it, so acc becomes 1+2=3; then the third element (3) is added to this, and so on. The effect is to consecutively sum all the numbers in list.

To make this more clear, let’s write our own version of reduce.

Writing your own

In many functional languages, a distinction is made between a left-to-right (starting at the lowest index) and right-to-left (starting at the highest index) reduction. This matters because depending on the function doing the reducing, the result can be different if the list is consumed from the left or from the right. For example, suppose our reducing function is

# Raku
-> \x,\y {x+y}
# Python
lambda x,y: x+y

then it does not matter which direction we traverse the list. But consider the following function:

# Raku
-> \x,\y { x < y ?? x+y !! x }
# Python
lambda x,y: x+y if x<y else x

( ` … ?? … !! … is the Raku syntax for the conditional operator which is … ? … : … in most other languages and … if … else …` in Python)

In this case the result will be different if the list is reduced from the left or from the right. In Raku and Python, reduce is a left-to-right reduction.

Also, instead of using the first element of the list, the reduction function can take an additional argument, usually called the accumulator. In functional languages, reduce is usually called fold, so we can have a left fold and a right fold. Let’s have a look how we could implement these.

Left fold

A straightforward way to implement a left fold (so the same as reduce) is to use a for-loop inside the function. That means we have to update the value of the accumulator on every iteration of the loop. In Raku, sigil-less variables are immutable (I am simplifying here, see the Raku documentation for the full story) so we need to use a sigiled variable, $acc.

# Raku
sub foldll (&f, \iacc, \lst) { 
  my $acc = iacc; 
  for lst -> \elt {
    $acc = f($acc,elt);
# Python
def foldll (f, iacc, lst):
  acc = iacc
  for elt in lst:
    acc = f(acc,elt)  
  return acc

If we want to use immutable variables only, we can use recursion. Raku makes this easy because it allows multiple signatures for a subroutine (multi subs), and it will call the variant that matches the signature. In Python, there is the module multipledispatch that lets you do something similar to multi subs.

Our foldl will consume the input list lst and use f combine its elements into the accumulator acc. When the list has been consumed, the computation is finished and we can return acc as the result. So our first variant says that if the input list is empty, we should return acc. The second variant takes an element elt from the list (see the Raku documentation for details on the *) and combines it with acc into f(acc,elt). It then calls foldl again with this new accumulator and the remainder of the list, rest.

# When the list is empty, return the accumulator
multi sub foldl (&f, \acc, ()) { acc }
multi sub foldl (&f, \acc, \lst) {
  # Raku's way of splitting a list in the first elt and the rest
  # The '*' is a shorthand for the end of the list
   my (\elt,\rest) = lst[0, 1 .. * ]; 
   # The actual recursion
   foldl( &f, f(acc, elt), rest);

Python does not allow pattern matching of this kind so we need to write the recursion using a conditional:

def foldl (f, acc, lst):
  if lst == (): 
    return acc 
  # Python's way of splitting a tuple in the first elt and the rest
  # rest will be a list, not a tuple, but we'll let that pass
   (elt,*rest) = lst 
   # The actual recursion
   return foldl( f, f(acc, elt), rest)

In this implementation, none of the variables is ever updated. So all variables can be immutable.

Right fold

The right fold is quite similar to the left fold. For the loop-based version, all we do is reverse the list.

# Raku
sub foldrl (&f, \acc, \lst) { 
  my $res = acc;
  for  lst.reverse -> \elt {
    $res = f($res,elt);
# Python
def foldlr (f, iacc, lst):
  acc = iacc
  for elt in lst.reverse():
    acc = f(acc,elt)  
  return acc

In the recursive version, we take the last element from the list instead of the first one. For details on the ..^ * - 1 syntax please see the Raku documentation.

# Raku
multi sub foldr ( &f, \acc, ()) { acc }
multi sub foldr (&f, \acc, \lst) {
    my (\rest,\elt) = lst[0..^*-1, *  ];
    foldr( &f, f(acc, elt), rest);
# Python
def foldr (f, acc, lst):
  if lst == (): 
    return acc 
   (*rest,elt) = lst 
   return foldr( f, f(acc, elt), rest)

map and grep are folds

Now, what about map and grep? We can of course implement these with for-loops, but we can also implement them using our foldl:

# Raku
sub map (&f,\lst) {
    foldl( sub (\acc,\elt) {
            }, (), lst);
# Python
def map (f,lst):
    return foldl( 
      lambda acc,elt:(*acc, f(elt))

Because the function f is mappable, it only has a single argument. But foldl needs a function with two arguments, the first for the accumulator. So we call foldl with an anonymous function of two arguments. The accumulator itself is an empty list. Although we said earlier that a reduction combines all elements of the original list into a single return value, this return value can of course be any data type, so also a list. So we call f on every element of the original list and add it to the end of the accumulator list. (The | flattens the list, so (|acc,f(elt)) is a new list built from the elements of acc and result of f(elt).)

In a similar way we can also define grep:

# Raku
sub grep (&f,\lst) {
    foldl( sub (\acc,\elt) {
      if (f(elt)) {
      } else {
    }, (), lst);
# Python
def filter (f,lst):
    return foldl( 
      lambda acc,elt:
        (*acc,elt) if f(elt) else acc
      , (), lst)

Just like in the map implementation, we call foldl with an anonymous function. In this function we test if f(elt) is true for every elt in lst. If it is true we create a new list from acc and elt, otherwise we just return acc. Because map and grep operate on each element of the list separately, we could implement them using the right fold as well.

With these examples I hope that both the concept of a function working on functions and the possible ways of implementing them has become more clear. The advantage of the recursive implementation is that it allows us to use immutable data structures.

Why immutable data structures?

You may wonder why I focus on these immutable data structures. As we will have seen, functional programming works really well with immutable data structures. And they have one big advantage: you never have to worry if you have accidentally modified your data, or whether you should make a copy to be sure. So using immutable data structures make code less error-prone and easier to debug. They also have potential performance benefits. And as we’ll see next, in Raku there is yet another advantage.

Functions returning functions

Functions can also return functions. This is in particular useful if we want to have a parametrisable function. As a trivial example, suppose we want a series of functions that increments a number with a fixed value: add1, add2 etc. We could of course write each of them separately:

# Raku
sub add_1 (\x) {x+1}
sub add_2 (\x) {x+2}
sub add_3 (\x) {x+3}
sub add_4 (\x) {x+4}
sub add_5 (\x) {x+5}

say add_1(4); #=> says 5
# Python
def add_1 (x) : return x+1
def add_2 (x) : return x+2
def add_3 (x) : return x+3
def add_4 (x) : return x+4
def add_5 (x) : return x+5

print( add_1(4)) #=> says 5

Or we could use a list filled with anonymous functions:

# Raku
my \add =
sub (\x) {x},
sub (\x) {x+1},
sub (\x) {x+2},
sub (\x) {x+3},
sub (\x) {x+4},
sub (\x) {x+5};

say add[0].(4); #=> says 5
# Python
add = (
lambda x : x+1,
lambda x : x+2,
lambda x : x+3,
lambda x : x+4,
lambda x : x+5

print( add[0](4)) #=> says 5

We could do better and use a loop to fill an array with anonymous functions:

# Raku
my \add = [];
for 0 .. 5 -> \n {
  add.push(sub (\x) {x+n});

say add[1].(4); #=> says 5
# Python
add = []
for n in range(0,6):
  add.append(lambda x: x+n)

We create a new anonymous function with every loop iteration, and add it to the array. But instead, we could use a function to create these anonymous functions, and then we could use map instead of a loop, and use an immutable data structure:

# Raku
sub gen_add(\n) {  
  sub (\x) {x+n}

my \add = map &gen_add, 0..5;

say add[1].(4); #=> says 5
# Python
def gen_add(n):  
  return lambda x : x+n

add = tuple(map( gen_add, range(0,6)))

print( add[1](4)) #=> says 5


In Raku, using a range has an additional benefit: we can set the end of the range to infinity, which in Raku can be written as (unicode 221E), * or Inf.

# Raku
my \add = map &gen_add, 0 .. ∞;  

say add[244].(7124); #=> says 7368

This is an example of what is called “lazy evaluation”, or laziness for short: Raku is not going to try (and fail) to process this infinite list. Instead, it will do the processing when we actually use an element of that list. The evaluation of the expression is delayed until the result is needed, so when we call add[244], what happens is that gen_add(244) is called to generate that function. Note that this will not work with the for-loop, because to use the for-loop we need a mutable data structure, and the lazy lists have to be immutable. So this is a nice example of how the functional programming style allows you to benefit from laziness. For the full story of laziness in Raku, please see the documentation.

Python does not have lazy lists but is have a different form of laziness: the call to map (or filter) does not return the sequence of results but instead it returns a generator:

# Pythom
map_gen = map( gen_add, range(0,6666))

print(map_gen) #=> says <map object at 0x7f344caefdc0>

It is only when we wrap the generator in a sequence constructor such as tuple() that the results are actually generated.

Function composition

We saw above that you can chain calls to map and grep together. Often you only need to chain map calls together, for example

# Raku
map -> \x { x + 5 }, map -> \x {x*x}, 1..30;
# Python
map( lambda x : x + 5, map( lambda x : x*x, range(1,31)))

In that case, we can do this a little bit more efficient: rather than creating a list and then calling map on that list, we can do both computations at once by composing the functions. Raku provides a special operator for this:

map -> \x { x + 5 } ∘ -> \x { x * x }, 1..30;

The operator (the “ring operator”, unicode 2218, but you can also use a plain o) is the function composition operator, and it’s pronounced “after”, so f ∘ g is “f after g”. What it does is create a new function by combining two existing functions:

my &h = &f ∘ &g;

is the same as

sub h (\x) {

The advantage of the composition operator is that that it works for any function, including anonymous ones. But in fact, it is just another higher-order functions. It is simply the operator form of the following function:

# Raku
sub compose(&f,&g) {
    sub (\x) { f(g(x)) }

Python does not have a function composition operator, but you can easily have compose in Python too:

# Python
def compose(f,g):
    return lambda x: f(g(x))


In this article I have used Raku and Python examples to introduce three key functional programming techniques: functions that operate on functions, functions that return functions and function composition. I have shown how you to use the functions map, reduce (fold) and grep (filter) to operate on immutable lists. I have explained how yo(u can implement such functions with and without recursion, and what the advantage is of the recursive implementation. Here is the code from the article, Raku and Python.

There is of course a lot more to functional programming and I have written a few articles on more advanced topics. The concepts introduced in this article should provide a good basis for understanding those more advanced topics. If you want to learn more about functional programming, you might consider my free online course.